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Monday, 18 April 2011
-The immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by T lymphocytes.
-The correlation between CRP concentrations and viable counts of tubercle bacilli isolated from sputum of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, though statistically significant, is weak.
- Increased neutrophyls
- Inncreased ESR
- Decreased RBC
- Decreased lymphocytes
- Decreased Calcium and Sodium
- Decreased albumin, decreased protein levels, decreased globulins.
In active pulmonary TB, infiltrates or consolidations and/or cavities are often seen in the upper lobes with or without mediastinal or hilar lymphadenopathy or pleural effusions ( tuberculous pleurisy). However, lesions may appear anywhere in the lungs. In disseminated TB a pattern of many tiny nodules throughout the lung fields is common - the so called miliary TB. In HIV and other immunesuppressed persons, any abnormality may indicate TB or the chest X-ray may even appear entirely normal.
Abnormalities on chest radiographs may be suggestive of, but are never diagnostic of, TB. However, c
hest radiographs may be used to rule out the possibility of pulmonary T
B in a person who has a positive reaction to the tuberculin skin test and no symptoms of disease.
Cavitation or consolidation of the apexes of the upper lobes of the lung may be discernible by a chest x-ray.